431(4): Conditions in m theory under which p enters the Ni nucleus

Eq. (1) is the same as used in UFT427 and UFT430. It is derived in Note 430(2). This is the force outside the nickel nucleus or outside any particle of mass m. If m(r) and dm(r) / dr are positive valued then F is negative valued and attractive. Under condition (12) of Note 431(4) it is infinite. So I agree that the force outside the nickel nucleus must be negative valued, and when it becomes infinite the p merges with the Ni, the resulting entity is unstable, and breaks into copper plus products pus mega electron volts of energy released as heat and light. The negative sign outside Eq. (6) is a direct consequence of UFT427, which compared the expressions for m space force from the Euler Lagrange and Hamilton equations. The force (6) does not depend on the momentum of the proton, which shows why the proton does not need to be accelerated. It is a force due to m space itself, and is a force that does not exist in classical physics or special relativity. This is the force that overcomes the Coulomb barrier in the m theory. Once the proton is inside the nickel nucleus the resulting entity is unstable and breaks apart into copper, other products and a huge amount of energy. Similarly in the Cockcroft Walton experiment, once the proton is inside the lithium nucleus, the resulting entity is unstable and breaks apart into two alpha particles plus a huge amount of energy. However in that experiment the proton had to be accelerated with 750,000 volts. The term responsible for the chaotic motion has been used to obtain Eq. (1) of this note. The details are given in Note 430(2). I agree that F is ubiquitous, i.e. is always associated with any particle of mass m. The experimenter must prepare the nickel powder and mix it with hydrogen in exactly the right way, so that the resonance condition (12) is satisfied. So just mixing nickel powder and hydrogen will not work. Similarly nickel can be transformed to nickel carbonyl gas under the right conditions. This is the Ludwig Mond process, and takes place here in the Mond nickel works. The nickel carbonyl condenses into pure nickel which is used for all kinds of products. Just mixing nickel and carbon monoxide will not work. The mixing has to be done according to the Mond patent. In nuclear physics the force (1) also exists and can be used to replace the strong nuclear attractive force of the standard model.

431(4): Conditions in m theory under which p enters the Ni nucleus

Obviously you have inverted the signs in the denominator of eq.(6) to obtain a negative sign for the whole expression. To my understanding the force F0 must be negative outside the Ni nucleus so that the proton can overcome the Coulomb barrier, otherwise there would be no nuclear reaction possible. Inside the Ni nucleus, F0 has to stay negative in order not to smash the nucleus. This means that there is no sign change of F0 necessary, we can use our original approach of m(r). The force will be enormous due to the factor mc^2, a similar effect as we have found in the Hamilton and Lagrange calculations, where this leads to chaotic motion. The mechanism is not specific to Ni, it should appear always when a proton approaches a nucleus, only the energy balance may vary. This may be a certain problem. Why does LENR only work in certain systems?

I will prepare some graphics for the Ni values next.

Horst

Am 12.02.2019 um 11:53 schrieb Myron Evans:

431(4): Conditions in m theory under which p enters the Ni nucleus

This note shows that the condition is Eq (12), discussed in detail by Horst in UFT417 and UFT430. The attractive force (1) of m theory is entirely new to physics and is as ubiquitous as the rest energy for example. For a rest particle it is given by Eq. (6). It is a force of generally covariant unified field theory (m theory) and does not exist in special relativity or classical physics. It exists in static nickel nuclei surrounded by static p nuclei in a hydrogen gas. So the low energy nuclear reaction can take place without the need to accelerate the protons as in the Cockroft Walton experiment of 1932 (which used 750,000 volts to accelerate p into lithium and break it into two alpha particles, then newly discovered by Rutherford). Once the proton enters the nickel nucleus it becomes unstable and transmutes to copper and other products. A huge amount of energy is released, as described by Eq. (17), even though the initial nickel and proton nuclei are rest particles, or very slowly moving. All forms of energy are interconvertible, so the energy manifests itself as heat and very intense emission radiation in the visible and ultra violet but not in the gamma ray region. This is the well known emission spectrum of nickel vapour, the nickel having been vapourized due to the emitted heat. So LENR is safe and has been given its industry safety certificate for industrial units. Obviously it is safe, otherwise all workers who have observed LENR would have been severely damaged by gamma rays. Exactly the right mixture of nickel and hydrogen is needed to produce condition (12). The latter is obtained from comparing the Euler Lagrange theory and Hamilton theory in m space as in UFT427. So m theory describes all aspects of low energy nuclear reactions straightforwardly. In nuclear theory the force (1) can now replace the empirical Woods Saxon potential used in UFT226 to UFT230 and ultimately replace the standard model of the nucleus and elementary particles by a much simpler and more powerful theory.