Vacuum particle mass

These are interesting remarks. In Note 385(3) I developed UFT338, Eq. (11), and UFT339, written into PECE2. The factor 2 pi is simply because the spin connection four vector is defined by:

omega sup mu = (omega sub 0 / c, bold omega)

so omega sub 0 has the units of hertz (inverse seconds). The angular frequency is used in the de Broglie equation, and this is 2 pi omega sub 0. So the total relativistic energy of the vacuum particle is as in UFT 338:

E = 2 pi h bar omega sub 0 = gamma m c squared

the de Broglie / Einstein equation. This is assumed to be the equation that governs the quantization of spacetime, vacuum or aether. So in general:

omega sub 0 = gamma m c squared / (2 pi h bar omega sub 0)

For vacuum particles at rest, gamma = 1, giving the de Broglie equation first developed for photons at rest. In the standard model the mass of the photon is zero, leading to many insurmountable difficulties. The vacuum particle is not defined in the standard model, and the spin connection does not enter into electrodynamics and photonics in the standard model. So it has been assumed as in UFT338 and UFT339 that the missing mass of the universe is made up of vacuum particles at rest. There are also photons with mass at rest. The velocities have reduced to zero over billions of years. As shown in UFT338 the mass of the vacuum particle is

m = 2.1127 ten power minus 33 kilograms

a new elementary particle mass that makes QED obsolete. I agree that the aether or vacuum is structured, its structure is described by the space-like part of the spin connection. Its structure canalso be described by developing this Note with fluid electrodynamics, and in many other ways. The time-like part of the spin connection is related to the quantization of energy, and the space-like part of the spin connection is related to the quantization of momentum. Using the minimal prescription, momentum is proportional to the vector potential:

p = h bar kappa = e A

Sent: 07/08/2017 22:23:07 GMT Daylight Time
Subj: vacuum particle mass

A question: Why did you introduce the factor of 2 pi in eq.(31) of note
285(3)? This seems to be arbitrary.
Since omega_0 is a function of space and time, I think that the vacuum
mass of (34) cannot be universal. It depends on the physical situation
(or environment). For example near to a dipole it depends on the
distance to the dipole. We woould need an undistorted vacuum to define a
universal m, but there is a flux of spacetime even on the galactic
level, therefore the vacuum mass will even differ on this scale to my
opinion. Or was your intention to say (reversely) that in undistorted
space regions the vacuum particle mass corresponds to a spin connection


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