Archive for February, 2012

Van de Graaf and Galaxy Rotation

Feed: Dr. Myron Evans
Posted on: Tuesday, February 28, 2012 1:34 AM
Author: metric345
Subject: Van de Graaf and Galaxy Rotation

This is an excellent analogy, I will see if I can find an equation r = function(theta(t)) for the motion of an electron in a van der Graaf generator. That equation can be used as the starting point for the calculation of torsion and curvature and so on. These apply equally well to a van der Graaf generator and a whirlpool galaxy.

In a message dated 27/02/2012 15:27:56 GMT Standard Time,

Dear Myron,

Perhaps there is an action versus reaction going on at the centre of the galaxy as stars are emitted from the core that can be compared with what is seen using the tools on a Van de Graaf generator.

If a clockwise spiral shape is set up on a Van de Graaf generator, the disc spins anticlockwise when the handle is turned and the electrons leave the trailing ends of the disc moving clockwise.

If an ‘L’ shape is fitted on the top of the generator with the point of the L then lying horizontal, the electrons can be felt as a breeze emerging from the point if the tip of the tongue is placed near it. This electron breeze must also be emerging from the spiral galaxy fitting and must produce the anticlockwise rotation of the spiral disc as an action versus reaction effect. Perhaps this tells us something about galaxy spin.

The centre of the galaxy could be then seen as a supermassive core spinning in the opposite direction to the trailing stars of the arms, but with whole galaxy being dragged slowly in the direction of spin of the core. The core could be systematically spun faster by subsequent stars being ejected, so the core would spin faster as more stars are ejected.

Just an idea, but it may give food for thought.

Best Wishes

Kerry

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Leading and Trailing Arms in a Spiral Galaxy

Feed: Dr. Myron Evans
Posted on: Monday, February 27, 2012 2:39 AM
Author: metric345
Subject: Leading and Trailing Arms in a Spiral Galaxy

Nice to hear from Kerry Pendergast! We are all agreed that the standard model is incorrect, so does the entire world of physics. To deny this is to deny algebra (UFT202). So I think it is best to look at data with a fresh mind. The dynamics of a galaxy with leading arms in ECE are as given in UFT76, with an animation by Horst Eckardt. The stars emerge from the centre and evolve from it in ECE theory – leading arm dynamics as observed for example in Andromeda. Many galaxies have leading arms as a quick google search will show. However, what precisely and mathematically is meant by “trailing” and “leading”. In ECE this question is easily answered as below. The oldest stars are located in the centre, which therefore must be the origin of the motion of the stars towards the outer edge for leading arms. In the standard model it is asserted that the motion of the stars is an orbit, but that orbit is explained neither with Newtonian nor with Einsteinian theory, so dark matter was “invented”. However, recent experimental results show that dark matter does not exist. As in UFT49 the age of stars is measured by surface temperature and luminosity. I have looked up a few websites on trailing and leading arms and the argument seems to be purely theoretical. What is the actual experimental evidence for leading and trailing arms? In Andromeda for example there are both leading and trailing arms which are supposed to turn into each other according to the old theory. In ECE theory a leading arm is defined by t = 0 at the origin O In note 209(3). A trailing arms is defined by t = 0 at the point A in note 209(3). So ECE theory can deal with both types of motion. I stress that these are the beginnings of a new general relativity, and we are using very simple analytical models.

In a message dated 26/02/2012 22:03:32 GMT Standard Time,

Dear Myron,

Galaxies spin with their arm ends trailing.

There are an equal number of galaxies spinning clockwise and anticlockwise from our point of view as would be expected, since a galaxy spinning clockwise from above would be spinning anticlockwise when viewed from below. It is the direction of spin with regard to the trailing arms which is important, as you know.

Best Wishes

Kerry

This note shows that the new equation of motion is the same for all spirals of the type:

r = r0 / theta power n

but that the torsion, linear velocity and angular velocity depend on n. Most generally the whirlpool galaxy may be made up of many hyperbolic spirals of different type, and may be made up of both clockwise and anticlockwise rotation. For various reasons the hyperbolic spiral is preferred to the Archimedes spiral on grounds of observation. The logarithmic spiral is ruled out by the fact that it gives no torsion. There are also double helix nebulae which require a Z axis component to be added to the spiral. Google “galaxy images from Hubble” to see double spirals such as Arp 274 and Stephan’s quintet.

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recent notes

Feed: Dr. Myron Evans
Posted on: Monday, February 27, 2012 11:11 AM
Author: metric345
Subject: recent notes

Many thanks again for going through the notes critically. Agreed with omega0. I think that the second point is answered in note 209(5), where a double spiral is used as a simple model. In general an origin must be chosen so that the star motion in a galaxy is defined with respect to that origin, then r = f(theta(t)) found. Observation must of course be used to define the orbit, then anything can be considerd, leading, trailing, and combinations. However we must start form observation, and not from another probably failed theory such as that of dark matter.

In a message dated 27/02/2012 10:39:48 GMT Standard Time.

In note 209(4) a factor of omega0 seems to be missing in eqs. 17-18. In (18) the lhs should read v squared.

In note 209(3) you placed the coordinate origin to X= infinity. Wouldn’t it be easier and more plausible to reverse the time paramter by

t –> t0 – t

Then the right directions of motion should come out. However there is a problem with the square root in (7) then. The absolute value of t would have to be taken.

Horst

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209(4): Time Evolution of the General Hyperbolic Star Spiral

Feed: Dr. Myron Evans
Posted on: Saturday, February 25, 2012 7:16 AM
Author: metric345
Subject: 209(4): Time Evolution of the General Hyperbolic Star Spiral

This note shows that the new equation of motion is the same for all spirals of the type:

r = r0 / theta power n

but that the torsion, linear velocity and angular velocity depend on n. Most generally the whirlpool galaxy may be made up of many hyperbolic spirals of different type, and may be made up of both clockwise and anticlockwise rotation. For various reasons the hyperbolic spiral is preferred to the Archimedes spiral on grounds of observation. The logarithmic spiral is ruled out by the fact that it gives no torsion. There are also double helix nebulae which require a Z axis component to be added to the spiral. Google “galaxy images from Hubble” to see double spirals such as Arp 274 and Stephan’s quintet.

a209thpapernotes4.pdf

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209(3): Coordinate System Definition and Explanation of the Velocity Curve

Feed: Dr. Myron Evans
Posted on: Saturday, February 25, 2012 5:31 AM
Author: metric345
Subject: 209(3): Coordinate System Definition and Explanation of the Velocity Curve

This note defines the coordinate system used for the hyperbolic spiral of stars in a whirlpool galaxy and gives an explanation of the velocity curve, i.e. of the observation that the orbital velocity of a star becomes constant as r goes to infinity. The next note will deal with the general hyperbolic spiral

r = r0 / theta power n

It is very important to note that the dynamics being developed here are completely non Newtonian, a whirlpool galaxy is observed to be completely non Newtonian. The Einstein theory has been abandoned as incorrect, and also fails completely in a whirlpool galaxy as has been known for no less than fifty years. It is also very important to note that the spacetime torsion swirls a star out of the centre of the galaxy towards its edges, and that the angle theta increases wth time. Just think of a glass rod swirling liquid in a beaker. At point A in the attached figure a time interval tau has elapsed from the start of the dynamic process at the point O. It follows that the coordinate system must be defined as in the figure. This definition will be used in future notes to define the double whirlpool galaxy observed by the Hubble space telescope and to develop its dynamics. A long time ago Cotes used Newtonian dynamics to show that the orbit of a particle of mass m attracted to a particle of mass M by an inverse cube law is a hyperbolic spiral, but that is the opposite motion of the whirlpool galaxy. In the Cotes analysis the time starts at A and finishes at O.

a209thpapernotes3.pdf

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Discussion by Robert Cheshire

Feed: Dr. Myron Evans
Posted on: Wednesday, February 15, 2012 2:17 AM
Author: metric345
Subject: Discussion by Robert Cheshire

I think that this is an excellent discussion, the mathematics of the torsion and angular velocity are essentially in agreement with it. Robert Cheshire has spent months analysing the photographs in great detail, and discovered the Cheshire lines as attached. In the latest note I illustrated the mathematics with the spiral of Archimedes, but any spiral can be used except for the log spiral. The maths show that there is a rapidly spinning central core at which the angular velocity and torsion are both at a maximum. Both quantities dissipate to zero at the edges of the galaxy. The linear velocity of a star at the edges is essentially v = omega r, and is observed experimentally to be a constant. So omega goes to zero, r goes to infnity, v is observed to be constant. As far as I know, the velocity curve of the whirlpool galaxy is such that v is never zero, so the galaxy is never static. Robert Cheshire describes the fact that any orbit is due to torsion. In the solar system the orbits are conic sections, i.e. hyperbola, parabola, ellipse, and the conic section is precessing. The hyperbola and the hyperbolic spiral are parameterized in the same way, so we see already that the new equation of motion of general relativity works well.

MoreonSpiralGalaxies.doc

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208(5) : Checking the Arc Length Along the Hyperbolic Spiral

Feed: Dr. Myron Evans
Posted on: Tuesday, February 14, 2012 1:08 AM
Author: metric345
Subject: 208(5) : Checking the Arc Length Along the Hyperbolic Spiral

This is eq. (1), evaluated by co author Horst Eckardt using Maxima. The conclusions of note 208(3) are unaffected. The result (1) from Maxima is diferent, however, from the result I found from a standard integral site called “SOS” and used in note 208(3). I prefer the Maxima result because it has been checked by many scientists over many years. Doug Lindstrom could use Mathematica or Maple to evaluate the integral (1). All three code packages should agree of course, and so should NAG, IBM ESSL, IBM MOTECC and so on. For such a simple curve (5) the arc length is a very complicated expression. The arc length is simply the length along the spiral. The main point of note 208(3) is to check the new equation of motion of general relativity obtained from the method of UFT207, and this equation made perfect sense for cases where the hyperbolic spiral is used. This spiral is theta = r0 / r and is analytically very simple. The equation of motion was checked analytically in another way in note 208(4).

a208thpapernotes5.pdf

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